What are Wet Scrubbers?
Wet Scrubbers are used as measures in the abatement of pollutant particles as it is essentially used in the purification of gases evolving from the industrial exhaust chambers before they are released in the environment. They are a prototype used in the original type of dust removal procedures which included a scrubbing system that had a wet substance to remove acidic gases from rain which, if unchecked, would lead to acid rain.
Wet Scrubbers work a long way in reducing pollutants from heavily toxic gases by capturing them in liquid droplets. These droplets are then collected and separated from the polluted gases.
Advantages of using Wet Scrubbers:
There are both advantages and disadvantages of using a wet scrubber. A few of them are listed below:
#Effective Against a Wide Range of Pollutants: They are especially effective against Sulphur effluents like Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide, Sulphur monoxide, etc. They also neutralize the corrosive effect of acidic gases like chlorine and nitrogen gases and remove mercury too.
#Convenience in Space Occupation: A wet scrubber can reduce the temperature and the volume of exhaust gases heavy in particulate matter. Therefore parts, such as, vessel parts (including fans and ducts downstream) are smaller in sizes, smaller than those of the controlling devices which result in cost-effectiveness and more feasibility in the site location of the scrubbers.
#Total removal of dust pollutants: As soon as the particulate matter gets collected and separated, there is no scope of the addition of further dust particles. The dust materials collected can neither escape on their way out nor from the hoppers. They are even able to collect both gases and the suspended particulate matter.
#Efficiency in handling high temperatures: Wet Scrubber has the tenacity to handle high temperatures and moisture. No faults related to high temperatures or high pressures are reported while wet scrubber is in use. In addition to this, flue gases are cooled in its chambers, leading to the choice of opting smaller size of equipment.
#Supreme safety: Wet scrubber is very safe to be used as most dry gases are flammable. The use of water to tackle effluents eliminate the chances of possible heat leak and explosion in the gas chamber. Thus, they double up to be used as fire extinguishers too.
#High-Cost efficiency: As they are sturdy and can bear with high temperatures, a wet scrubber can be installed in the heavy-duty industrial plants which emit highly toxic effluents as water can be the cheapest form of waste treatment. Therefore, this type of abatement of air pollutants is one among the cheapest in the business, helping the industrialists heave a sigh of relief as they do not like to fret much over the expenses of treatment plants. Also, due to the economical use of space, the scrubbers can be fitted with more cost friendly, smaller fans, which add to the low capital investment in factories and relatively low running costs, though the efficiency in function may cause due to the wet packed towers where liquid or gas flows vary from time to time from its initial design parameters.
#Diversity in usage: As they are super-efficient in removing dust particles and ambient moisture control, they have proved their utility in several varying industries like acid plants, steel mills, fertilizer plants, asphalt plants, large power plants and even cheese processing industry.
Despite all the benefits, there are a few drawbacks too including the major problem of corrosion and the demand for frequent maintenance. If the wet scrubbers are looked after and vented properly, these machines can run for many years before the actual need for their replacement.